Review Article: The zoonotic potential of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analyses of the evidence.
This is the fourth such major literature review and the fourth to verify a consistent association of MAP and Crohn’s disease. The article also concludes there is an association of MAP and multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the authors’ are very cautious in their assessment of what actions should be taken as shown by this excerpt of their publication's concluding paragraph:
Although we presented some strong and consistent MA [meta-analysis] results of the association between M. paratuberculosis and human disease; the variability in M. paratuberculosis prevalence in controls and diseased groups and a lack of understanding whether some or all CD [Crohn’s disease] is caused or propagated by M. paratuberculosis are important knowledge gaps. These are the reasons for the lack of support for recommending further interventions against human exposure to M. paratuberculosis beyond what the dairy and ruminant industries have already developed for animal health and economic reasons. Thus, M. paratuberculosis may have a role in human disease; however the evidence is not strong enough to inform the potential public health impact of M. paratuberculosis exposure.