Certification programs can be operated by private domestic agriculture organizations as in Australia and The Netherlands or by governmental organizations such as federal or state departments of agriculture. They may be voluntary or mandatory. A certification program can be viewed as an onerous burden, interfering with the ability of herd owners to carry out their business. It can also be seen as a necessary program helping to maintain the health and well-being of animals plus the economic well-being of herd owners as well as the animal industry at large. The most fully developed certification programs covering multiple animal species are in Australia. A visit to their website is strongly encouraged. Links to websites of other countries and U.S. states are found on the links page.
animal owners in the design of a certification program and cooperation of owners
with regulatory agencies and researchers specializing in Johne's disease is vital
to an effective program. These programs need evaluation, revision and refinement
as they are implemented to identify weaknesses and make the programs stronger
and more effective. Design of certification programs is an ongoing process that
requires active involvement by all participants.
The design of certification programs should be tailored to the animal species, patterns of husbandry, prevailing industry economics and the geographic region. Programs for cattle herds, in particular dairy cattle herds, are the most common and well-developed. A few states or countries have programs for goats, sheep, and alpacas. Visitors to this website should seek specific information on herd/flock certification programs for the specific animal species of interest (see panel at upper left).