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JOHNE'S INFORMATION CENTER - University of Wisconsin Ñ School of Veterinary Medicine

Tuesday, July 24, 2018
International Guidelines to Slow MAP Spread

[excerpt from introduction to the 16 page guidelines]
Despite increasing understanding of MAP and paratuberculosis (Johne’s disease), little progress has been made in limiting the spread of MAP between regions and countries. MAP has been detected in most countries where it has been investigated. Regrettably, interest in MAP often only increases in countries and regions as they realize, too late, that they have endemic Johne’s disease (JD) or when another country wants to include MAP in health certification for animals or products. Knowledge gaps constraining successful control have been reviewed recently (Barkema et al, 2017).

Article 3 of the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement, World Trade Organization, 2016) states that:

“To harmonize sanitary and phytosanitary measures on as wide a basis as possible, Members shall base their sanitary or phytosanitary measures on international standards, guidelines or recommendations, where they exist.”

There has also been little progress in developing and applying scientifically sound animal movement requirements for MAP. Since 2001, efforts through official channels such as OIE have not borne fruit and, for the past decade, the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code Chapter on Paratuberculosis has provided little guidance in this area. Concern about the low accuracy of diagnostic tests in individual animals has been a major reason that the Code chapter has not been developed further. However, the OIE Diagnostic Manual has been updated to also refer to diagnostic testing at herd-level. Herd-level testing and other certification based on large scale surveillance has been implemented for other diseases for which negative individual animal tests provide limited assurance, such as bovine brucellosis, bovine tuberculosis and the prion diseases.

The International Association for Paratuberculosis (IAP) agreed in 2015 to develop its own guidelines for importers and exporters who want to implement rational movement requirements, based on current understanding of managing MAP risks and consistent with the principles of the SPS Agreement. These recognize and recommend risk management that is justified and appropriate for different situations. These guidelines were approved by the IAP Governing Board and full membership on June 6, 2018 in conjunction with the 14-ICP held in Riviera-Maya, Mexico.

Comment: These IAP-approved guidelines are available on the publications page of the IAP website. This posting is to call attention to this important document.

Guidelines for MAP certification for livestock (16 pages).