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JOHNE'S INFORMATION CENTER - University of Wisconsin Ñ School of Veterinary Medicine
Heading: Johnes Information Centerlink: school of veterinary medicine
Heading: What's New

These postings are listed
chronologically, from latest to
earliest. Please browse
by date or search by topics.


July 2018

Tuesday, July 31, 2018
MAP & Crohn’s & RedHill BioPharma – more details.

This news item provides a copy of a press release from RedHill BioPharma that gives more details about their clinical trial findings. Key findings:

  • Primary endpoint successfully achieved - superior remission rate at week 26 in patients treated with RHB-104 (p= 0.013).

  • Key secondary endpoints also met, demonstrating consistent benefit to Crohn’s disease patients treated with RHB-104.

  • Comment: The real proof is in the final peer reviewed publication: Repeating comments from the prior new item, if the final published results of this trial are consistent with the claims in this press release, it represents a final piece of evidence indicating that MAP is a cause of Crohn’s disease. This would heighten the need for veterinary medicine, animal agriculture, and relevant governmental agencies concerned with food safety to limit contamination of food and water by MAP.

    Press Release

    Monday, July 30, 2018
    RedHill BioPharma has positive results from anti-MAP Crohn’s disease trial.

    First reported by Reuters, Tel Aviv, July 30:

    Israel's RedHill Biopharma said on Monday it had positive safety and efficacy results from a late-stage clinical trial with its treatment for Crohn's disease called RHB-104.

    The study met its primary endpoint and key secondary endpoints, demonstrating the drug's superiority over a placebo in achieving remission of the gastrointestinal disease at week 26, the company said in a statement.

    "The proportion of patients meeting the primary endpoint was significantly greater in the RHB-104 group compared to placebo," RedHill said.

    Patients treated with RHB-104 also experienced a statistically significant benefit in achieving early remission at week 16 and in durable remission over weeks 16-52.

    RHB-104 was found to be generally safe and well tolerated, said the company, which is focused on proprietary drugs for gastrointestinal diseases.

    "Many patients with Crohn’s disease do not achieve remission on current standard-of-care therapies, which are accompanied with poor side effects," said David Graham, lead investigator of the Phase III study.

    "RHB-104 appears to have the potential to become a promising, new, orally administered therapy for this important debilitating disease."

    RHB-104 is a proprietary, antibiotic combination therapy that is based on the hypothesis that Crohn’s disease is caused by a bacterial infection in susceptible patients called Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP).

    Comment: If the final published results of this trial are consistent with the claims in this press release, it represents a final piece of evidence indicating that MAP is a cause of Crohn’s disease. This would heighten the need for veterinary medicine, animal agriculture, and relevant governmental agencies concerned with food safety to limit contamination of food and water by MAP.

    RedHill BioPharma

    Tuesday, July 24, 2018
    International Guidelines to Slow MAP Spread

    [excerpt from introduction to the 16 page guidelines]
    Despite increasing understanding of MAP and paratuberculosis (Johne’s disease), little progress has been made in limiting the spread of MAP between regions and countries. MAP has been detected in most countries where it has been investigated. Regrettably, interest in MAP often only increases in countries and regions as they realize, too late, that they have endemic Johne’s disease (JD) or when another country wants to include MAP in health certification for animals or products. Knowledge gaps constraining successful control have been reviewed recently (Barkema et al, 2017).

    Article 3 of the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement, World Trade Organization, 2016) states that:

    “To harmonize sanitary and phytosanitary measures on as wide a basis as possible, Members shall base their sanitary or phytosanitary measures on international standards, guidelines or recommendations, where they exist.”

    There has also been little progress in developing and applying scientifically sound animal movement requirements for MAP. Since 2001, efforts through official channels such as OIE have not borne fruit and, for the past decade, the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code Chapter on Paratuberculosis has provided little guidance in this area. Concern about the low accuracy of diagnostic tests in individual animals has been a major reason that the Code chapter has not been developed further. However, the OIE Diagnostic Manual has been updated to also refer to diagnostic testing at herd-level. Herd-level testing and other certification based on large scale surveillance has been implemented for other diseases for which negative individual animal tests provide limited assurance, such as bovine brucellosis, bovine tuberculosis and the prion diseases.

    The International Association for Paratuberculosis (IAP) agreed in 2015 to develop its own guidelines for importers and exporters who want to implement rational movement requirements, based on current understanding of managing MAP risks and consistent with the principles of the SPS Agreement. These recognize and recommend risk management that is justified and appropriate for different situations. These guidelines were approved by the IAP Governing Board and full membership on June 6, 2018 in conjunction with the 14-ICP held in Riviera-Maya, Mexico.

    Comment: These IAP-approved guidelines are available on the publications page of the IAP website. This posting is to call attention to this important document.

    Guidelines for MAP certification for livestock (16 pages).

    Tuesday, July 17, 2018
    PCR kit comparison

    Background: Detection of MAP in fecal samples by PCR is quickly becoming the standard for paratuberculosis diagnosis. When done well by qualified labs, it is as accurate as fecal culture, less expensive than fecal culture, and faster than fecal culture. Also, testing by PCR is roughly three times more sensitive than testing for antibodies to MAP in serum or milk samples for MAP infection detection. Costs of whole-herd or whole-flock testing are roughly the same as for testing by ELISA when sample pooling is done by laboratories. However, so called “pooled PCR testing” is most appropriate for herds and flocks with a low MAP infection prevalence, not heavily infected herds or flocks.

    At the 14th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis (14-ICP), June 4-8 in Mexico, a poster presentation by Roger Stephan, et al. from the University of Zurich in Switzerland compared four PCR kits finding that the kit by Qiagen had the best combined sensitivity (90%) and specificity (100%). %). [see poster 1.12 on page 57] Qiagen, a major player in molecular diagnostics, has sold the animal health portion of its business to a new company called Indical Bioscience. This company is selling paratuberculosis PCR kits in Europe and is in the process of getting a USDA-license to sell its kits in the USA. For more about Indical Bioscience go to Indical products are being marketed in the USA by Biovet.

    Comment: This was a very small study that used only 15 bovine fecal samples. However, the main point of the poster is that not all kits perform the same and laboratories should choose kits carefully. To see all of the abstracts from the 14-ICP (now publically available) follow this link:

    Proceedings of the 14-ICP

    June 2018

    Tuesday, June 26, 2018
    MAP & T1DM: Coincidence or Causality

    Background: In 2006 Dr. Tom Dow hypothesized that MAP, the cause of Johne's disease, in cow’s milk could act as a trigger for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) – see the journal Medical Hypotheses 67:782-785, 2006. In 2008, a research group led by Dr. Leonardo A. Sechi demonstrated that T1DM patients have serum antibodies to MAP more often that do T2DM patients or healthy controls (Clinical Vaccine and Immunology, 15:320-326, 2008). In 2011, Dr Sechi’s research team described a mechanism whereby antibodies directed against a specific MAP protein (MAP3865c) cross-react with a key pancreatic beta-cell antigen in T1DM patients (ZnT8) (PLoS ONE 6:e26931), a process called molecular mimicry. This idea opened new avenues for understanding the interplay of human genetics and MAP exposure regarding T1DM immunopathology.

    News: This week, at the American Diabetes Association meeting, British researchers reported that vaccination of T1DM patients with BCG (a vaccine against tuberculosis) showed significant clinical improvement.

    Comment: Although highly speculative, this data provides additional intriguing evidence supporting Dr. Dow’s novel hypothesis that MAP may be the trigger for T1DM and that vaccination against MAP could offer hope of a cure. If so, then elimination of MAP in the food supply could potentially prevent T1DM.

    Footnote: The postulated MAP/T1DM association was first presented at the 2005 IAP meeting in Copenhagen. You can join the IAP and access such new ideas and the world's leading paratuberculosis researchers for only $50/year.

    News story on MEDPAGE TODAY

    Tuesday, June 19, 2018
    Highlights from the 14th ICP

    June 4-8, 2018, Mexico hosted the 14th Colloquium of the International Association for Paratuberculosis (14-ICP) in the Riviera Maya, Quintana Roo. Abstracts of the meeting are available to all IAP members (191 pages). They will be publicly available later on the IAP website. You can join the IAP for only US$50. This news posting offers some selected highlights of general interest.

  • Some cattle can recover from a MAP infection.(abstract 1.3)

  • U.S. researchers reported that cattle, sheep and goats respond similarly to MAP infection but experimental infection of calves proved to be the most standardized model for research.(abstract 1.7)

  • In a New Zealand dairy herd, selective culling of MAP-shedder animals resulted in control of infectious spread and a dramatic increase in animal health and production within one year.(abstract 1.11)

  • A study of Irish dairy herds found that season, milk yield and somatic cell counts can affect milk ELISA results.(poster 1.1)

  • Paratuberculosis was confirmed in a scimitar-horned oryx in Mexico.(poster 1.22)

  • Paratuberculosis affects 23% of 115 buffalo tested in Brazil.(poster 2.48)

  • 50% of 44 wild deer in Colombia tested positive for antibody to MAP using a commercial ELISA kit.(poster 2.58)

  • In western India, high rates of ELISA-positivity were found in cattle (88.1%), sheep (51.4%), buffalo (33.3%), and goats (33%), rates that were far higher than for brucellosis.(poster 2.61)

  • Natural transmission of paratuberculosis from a goat to a pot-bellied pig in the U.S. was reported.(poster 3.72)

  • MAP was cultured from skeletal muscle (meat) of 34% of 143 cattle with clinical signs of paratuberculosis in a German abattoir study.(poster 4.74)

  • In Brazil, 17% of 258 Crohn’s patients tested PCR-positive for MAP in intestinal biopsy specimens collected at colonoscopy using two MAP-specific genetic targets plus an internal control.(poster 4.78)

  • A Canadian survey found the estimated true herd-level prevalence of paratuberculosis in dairy herds to be 67% in Western Canada, 58% in Ontario, 22% in Quebec, and 41% in the Atlantic Provinces.(Merkal Award presentation on page 157 of the abstracts).
  • IAP website

    May 2018

    Thursday, May 17, 2018
    Johne's disease control: a challenging yet achievable goal.

    This commentary summarizes the article by Gavin et al. regarding successful eradication of Johne’s disease from a goat herd, mentioned previously on this website. The author, Sam Strain, highlights these key strategies:

    Biosecurity Reducing the risk of infection introduction Avoid animal introductions; if introducing animals, ensure the vendor herd has a high Johne’s disease health status; and avoid the introduction of faeces from adults or faecal contaminated materials.

    Biocontainment: Reducing the risk of infection spread within the infected herd Identify and remove all ‘high risk’ animals from maternity and young stock areas; ensure colostrum/milk from positive animals is not fed to animals that will be retained for breeding purposes; ensure excellent hygiene standards in maternity areas; prevent cross suckling or consumption of colostrum/milk from multiple dams; and as far as possible keep young stock separate from all adult animals and their faeces.

    Testing: Use tests as a management tool to identify higher risk animals; test all adult animals by ELISA (blood or milk), poor sensitivity can, to some extent, be overcome by repeated testing (in general, higher ELISA readings are suggestive of higher risk animals); ELISA test specificity of 98 to 99 per cent will mean that false-positive results will occur; cull or manage high risk animals to avoid infection transmission to young livestock; faecal culture or PCR are useful ancillary tests to confirm infection and to identify higher shedding animals. Animals living in an infected environment can ingest Map or Map DNA without becoming infected – this ‘pass-through’ can be detected in faeces; therefore, care should be exercised in interpreting faecal test results in the absence of ELISA testing.

    Comment: In the experience of the author of this website, PCR on fecal samples is superior to ELISA on blood samples, provided the herd infection rate is low. And for herd surveillance, when the infection rate is very low or zero, PCR on fecal samples pooled by age (5/pool) at the testing laboratory is the most cost-effective diagnostic tool.

    Two page commentary in Veterinary Record

    Wednesday, May 2, 2018
    Johne's disease more common in goats than realized.

    Johne’s disease is a bigger problem in goats than many owners and veterinarians realize. Among all laboratory submissions to the JTC in 2017, 10.5% were PCR-positive and 4.9% were ELISA-positive giving a rough idea of the prevalence of MAP infections. The difference in positivity rates for PCR and ELISA reflect the roughly 3-fold higher diagnostic sensitivity of PCR. The fecal pooling strategy is a cost-effective, whole-herd testing strategy for herds with a low or zero MAP-infection prevalence.

    It is critical that paratuberculosis in goats be recognized and effectively dealt with before it becomes endemic. In the early 20th century when Johne’s disease was first reported in U.S. dairy cattle, producers were warned about this contagious, infectious disease, and most decided to ignore it rather than stomping it out before it became a bigger problem. A lesson learned the hard way.

    Report from our lab

    April 2018

    Tuesday, April 24, 2018
    Mycobacterial Implications in Crohn’s and Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    The Human Para Foundation has announced its 2018 Conference: Mycobacterial Implications in Crohn’s and Chronic Inflammatory Diseases. On September 21 & 22, 2018, a group of dedicated researchers will bring their experience and expertise to Berkeley, California for a two-day conference. Featuring presenters and experts from across the globe, this conference has been specifically designed to explore the role that mycobacteria, particularly Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis (MAP), may play in Crohn’s disease, Type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis and other chronic conditions.

    More information

    Thursday, April 12, 2018
    14th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis

    Reminder:June 4-8, 2018, Mexico will host the 14th Colloquium of the International Association for Paratuberculosis (14-ICP) in the Riviera Maya, Quintana Roo.

    This 14-ICP will assemble once again a group of researchers from throughout the world. It will be the 35th anniversary of the first meeting on paratuberculosis held in Ames, Iowa, and the 28th anniversary of the founding of the International Association for Paratuberculosis.

    Cancun-Riviera Maya is one of the most dynamic cultural capitals, rich in history and alive with excitement and friendliness people, where visitors each year come from all parts of the world, making this a wonderful showcase for all that Mexico has to offer.

    May 4, 2018 is the hotel reservation deadline. Please visit the meeting website to register for the conference and hotel.

    14-ICP website

    Thursday, April 5, 2018
    Johne's disease more common in beef cattle than realized

    The attached report provides rates of MAP infection in beef cattle based on submissions to the Johne’s Testing Center in 2017. Clients submit samples for a variety of reasons: to test clinical suspects, perform pre-purchase testing, or in attempt to achieve herd classification in the voluntary USDA program based on certainty of MAP infection freedom. A list of samples tested at the JTC was generated from the lab’s accession program and sorted by state. Samples tested by direct real-time PCR for IS900 on fecal samples were used to determine infection rates as they indicate the animal is currently shedding the organism. Fecal samples were either tested individually or pooled by animal age into groups of up to five animals.

    In 2017, 18.1% (105/578) beef cattle tested were PCR-positive, this includes all pools and individuals. Of the 941 fecal samples grouped into 195 pools, 49 (25.1%) were PCR-positive. Individuals comprising 27 pools were tested identifying 27 PCR-positive animals. The other pools were not tested individually, per client decision. Certain states accounted for a larger portion of samples received and positive results. For example, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, and Texas accounted for 63% (63/100) of PCR-positive samples.

    Report from our lab

    March 2018

    Monday, March 19, 2018
    MAP in Michigan Tap Water

    Research article
    This publication focuses on improved methods for detecting mycobacteria in water, specifically “nontuberculous mycobacteria” (NTM), of which MAP is a member. Mycobacteria researchers may benefit from these new more sensitive genetic detection techniques.

    MAP is one of the most virulent of the NTM bacteria. The study tested domestic water (DW), i.e. tap water, collected in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The DW treatment plant there obtains 80-85% of its water from the Huron River. The rest comes from groundwater wells.

    Of interest to readers of this website is that MAP was found as one of the several NTM at 6 of 15 water age time points; see green bars in Fig. 4 of the publication. Water age is the time between leaving the DW treatment plant and reaching the consumer’s household. The authors estimated the concentration of MAP at 35,000 MAP/liter of water: a lot, but only small fraction of all NTM found in the tap water.

    Comment: Finding MAP in tap water is not new, but it is concerning. The technology used for MAP detection does not allow determination if the MAP were alive or dead. In addition, the source of MAP in tap water is unknown. What science does know is that MAP replicates primarily in ruminant animals. However, MAP can replicate in free-living amoeba and persist in biofilms of the type found on pipes in water distribution systems. The Huron River watershed is home to over 4,500 dairy cattle and 1,800 goats. Their MAP-infection status is unknown.

    Link to full Open Access article in mBio, a publication of the American Society for Microbiology

    Wednesday, March 14, 2018
    Another study finds live MAP in pasteurized milk

    Research article

    A survey of retail purchased semi-skimmed pasteurised milk (n = 368) for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) was conducted between May 2014 and June 2015 across the midlands of England using the Phage-PCR assay. Overall, 10.3% of the total samples collected contained viable MAP cells, confirming that pasteurisation [British spelling] is not capable of fully eliminating human exposure to viable MAP through milk. Comparison of the results gained using the Phage-PCR assay with the results of surveys using either culture or direct PCR suggest that the phage-PCR assay is able to detect lower numbers of cells, resulting in an increase in the number of MAP-positive samples detected. Comparison of viable count and levels of MAP detected in bulk milk samples suggest that MAP is not primarily introduced into the milk by faecal contamination but rather are shed directly into the milk within the udder. In addition results detected an asymmetric distribution of MAP exists in the milk matrix prior to somatic cell lysis, indicating that the bacterial cells in naturally contaminated milk are clustered together and may primarily be located within somatic cells. These latter two results lead to the hypothesis that intracellular MAP within the somatic cells may be protected against heat inactivation during pasteurisation, accounting for the presence of low levels of MAP detected in retail milk.

    Comment: At least six peer-reviewed scientific reports have found live MAP in retail HTST pasteurized milk. Given that all other slow-growing mycobacteria are proven zoonotic pathogens (pathogens capable of causing disease in humans), it is imperative that the medical community conclusively establish if MAP presents a risk to human health or not.

    Link to journal article

    Wednesday, March 7, 2018
    Successful eradication of Johne’s disease from a large dairy goat herd

    Research publication from the journal Veterinary Record. Abstract:
    This retrospective analysis and report describes the successful eradication and posteradication surveillance programme for Johne’s disease (Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP)) in a closed herd of dairy goats. In 1994, MAP’s presence in the goat herd was first suspected through individual annual serological screening and then subsequently confirmed through faecal culture and histopathology in 1997 when implementation of a more aggressive programme of testing and eradication of the diseased animals began. This programme included frequent serological screening of all adult goats using ELISA and agar gel immunodiffusion assays. Faecal cultures for bacteria were performed on suspect or positive animals and for all goats found dead or euthanized, and tissues were submitted for histopathology and acid-fast staining. Additional disease eradication measures included maintaining a closed herd and minimising faecal-oral transmission of MAP. Following a more aggressive testing regimen and euthanasia of goats with positive faecal culture, the herd was first considered free of MAP in 2003 and has remained free to the present day.

    Comment: This study and others, demonstrates that Johne’s disease can be eradicated from goat herds. If it can be done in this herd of over 500 goats, it clearly can be done in small herds. Diagnostics have improved greatly since this herd began their eradication program with ELISA and PCR being today’s best diagnostic tools.

    Link to full report

    Monday, March 5, 2018
    News video about the Ireland’s Johne’s Program

    The Irish government has given 2.6 million euro (US$3.2 million) to Animal Health Ireland to deal with Johne’s disease. The program, funded from 2017-2021, is voluntary. Ireland’s RTE One TV program called Ear to the Ground featured a story about Johne’s disease and the Irish program that first aired February 28, 2018.

    With permission from the show’s producers, you can watch this 8 minute piece enjoying lovely views of Irish dairy farms and stunning views of the countryside. Some of the content and many of the images used in this news story were provided by and its author.

    For details about the Johne’s disease program of Animal Health Ireland, visit their website,, and look under AHI Programmes.

    View 8 minute video

    February 2018

    Thursday, February 15, 2018
    MAP DNA detected in 34% of RA samples compared to 8% healthy controls.

    Researchers at the University of Central Florida College of Medicine, Orlando, FL hypothesized that Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the negative regulators Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Non-receptor type 2 and 22 (PTPN2/22) lead to a dysregulated immune response, susceptibility to environmental triggers, and continued apoptosis as seen in chronic inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and Crohn’s disease (CD).

    MAP DNA was detected in 34% of 70 RA patient samples compared to 8% of 48 healthy controls, (p-values ≤ 0.05, OR = 5.74). Combined occurrence of PTPN2:rs478582 and PTPN22:rs2476601 in association with the presence of MAP has significantly increased T-cell response and elevated IFN-γ expression in RA patient samples. The data suggest that genetic polymorphisms may play vital role in T-cell regulation, susceptibility to mycobacteria and ultimately response to treatment. This is the first study to report the detection of MAP DNA in the blood of RA patients; further studies are needed using larger number of samples.

    RA is an idiopathic autoimmune disease with suspected genetic predisposition and environmental triggers association. Due to intense inflammation, hyperplasia of the joints occurs along with cartilage and bone destruction, which leads to extreme pain and deformity of the extremities. RA is a common chronic disease that affects about 1% of the world population. The prevalence of RA in the US is estimated at approximately 1.29 million people or 0.6% of the population.

    Link to the full article in Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Thursday, February 15, 2018
    Vaccination against MAP improves health in a mouse model of MS

    Michael R. Warmoth, MD demonstrated that a vaccine targeted against MAP was effective in providing relief from neurologic disability in the EAE mouse model of Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis. Peak disability, as measured by the EAE Scoring Parameters, was 38% less (p<0.006) in the SigH immunized mice for the first flare of disability and 40% less (p<0.001) for the relapse.

    MS affects approximately 400,000 people in the US and 2.5 million worldwide. In the US, prevalence estimates are approximately 90 per 100,000 population. MS symptoms can start anywhere between 10 and 80 years of age, but onset is usually between 20 and 40 years, with a mean of 32 years. The cause of MS is unknown but thought to result from the interplay of human genetics and unspecified environmental factors.

    The MAP vaccine was developed by researchers are the University of Wisconsin-Madison, School of Veterinary Medicine.

    Full article

    January 2018

    Thursday, January 11, 2018

    Pathogenesis, Molecular Genetics, and Genomics of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the Etiologic Agent of Johne’s Disease

    This excellent review article is a technical summary of what we know about MAP, mainly from the veterinary perspective. It highlights the fecal-oral method of primary transmission, and how MAP causes disease in animals by increasing intestinal permeability and infecting macrophages, which results in granulomas. Diagnostics and current vaccines are discussed, with the caveat that none provide long term immunity. Zoonotic potential is outlined, with a quick overview of published research, and the mapping of the MAP K-10 genome is presented. The article concludes with an in depth discussion of potential vaccines in development and states that live-attenuated vaccines are the best approach against mycobacteria.

    This article is available in full on the Frontiers in Veterinary Science journal.

    November 2017

    Monday, November 20, 2017
    Viable MAP found in calf milk replacer

    Calf milk replacer (CMR) is essentially powdered formula for baby calves. A research team led by Dr. Irene Grant tested 83 commercial CMR products obtained from dairy farms around the United States for MPA using by peptide-mediated magnetic separation (PMS)-phage assay, PMS followed by liquid culture (PMS-culture), and direct IS900 quantitative PCR (qPCR). Conventional microbiological analyses for total mesophilic bacterial counts, coliforms, Salmonella , coagulase-negative staphylococci, streptococci, nonhemolytic Corynebacterium spp., and Bacillus spp. were also performed to assess the overall microbiological quality of the CMR. Twenty-six (31.3%) of the 83 CMR samples showed evidence of the presence of MAP. Seventeen (20.5%) tested positive for viable MAP by the PMS-phage assay, with plaque counts ranging from 6 to 1,212 pfu/50 mL of reconstituted CMR (average 248.5 pfu/50 mL). Twelve (14.5%) CMR samples tested positive for viable MAP by PMS-culture; isolates from all 12 of these samples were subsequently confirmed by whole-genome sequencing to be different cattle strains of MAP. Seven (8.4%) CMR samples tested positive for MAP DNA by IS900 qPCR. Four CMR samples tested positive by both PMS-based tests and 5 CMR samples tested positive by IS900 qPCR plus one or other of the PMS-based tests, but only one CMR sample tested positive by all 3 MAP detection tests applied. All conventional microbiology results were within current standards for whole milk powders. A significant association existed between higher total bacterial counts and presence of viable MAP indicated by either of the PMS-based assays. This represents the first published report of the isolation of viable MAP from CMR. These findings further raise concerns about the potential ability of MAP to survive manufacture of dried milk-based products.

    This Open Access article is available on the Journal of Dairy Science website.

    October 2017

    Wednesday, October 25, 2017
    14th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis

    In 2018, Mexico will host the 14th Colloquium of the International Association for Paratuberculosis (14-ICP) in the Riviera Maya, Quintana Roo. This 14-ICP will assemble once again a group of researchers from throughout the world. This will be the 35th anniversary of the first meeting on paratuberculosis held in Ames, Iowa, and the 28th anniversary of the founding of the International Association for Paratuberculosis. Cancun-Riviera Maya is one of the most dynamic cultural capitals, rich in history and alive with excitement and friendliness people, where visitors each year come from all parts of the world, making this a wonderful showcase for all that Mexico has to offer.

    The November 15, 2017 deadline to submit abstracts for the 14th ICP is fast approaching! Please visit the meeting website to register for the conference and submit your abstracts.

    Meeting website

    September 2017

    Wednesday, September 27, 2017
    The Consensus from the Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) Conference 2017

    On March 24 and 25, 2017 researchers and clinicians from around the world met at Temple University in Philadelphia to discuss the current knowledge of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and its relationship to human disease. The conference was held because of shared concern that MAP is a zoonotic bacterium that poses a threat not only to animal health but also human health. The conference proceedings may be viewed at

    A summary of the salient work in this field is followed by recommendations from a majority of the conferees. A majority of the conferees strongly urge that the possibility that MAP causes human disease no longer be ignored. Should further compelling evidence become available, it is recommended that the FDA and USDA (and their counterparts in other nations) have contingency plans in place to rapidly eliminate MAP from the milk and meat supply through effective MAP control measures including biosecurity and hygiene, vaccination, and test-and-cull programs. Even if public health measures are not put in place by the appropriate regulatory agencies, food producers are encouraged to offer food products from animals in MAP control programs. Many food producers are already undertaking voluntary control practices and this effort is encouraged and commended. The international representation in the authorship of this article attests to the observation that Crohn’s Disease is now a worldwide epidemic.

    The article has 70 coauthors, including the past (Collins) and current (Juste) Presidents of the International Association for Paratuberculosis. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.

    Link to full article

    Wednesday, September 13, 2017
    Ireland launches effort to eradicate paratuberculosis.

    Motivated by a need to protect its €1.7 billion annual infant milk formula sales, Animal Health Ireland today announced that the Johne’s Disease Implementation Group has agreed the commencement of a new program for the control of Johne’s Disease in Ireland. Building on the experience of the pilot control program for dairy herds (2014-2016), the design of this new broadly-based control program has been agreed by the Implementation Group, taking account of the recommendations of the Johne’s Disease Technical Working Group. The program will be introduced in two phases, the first phase commencing early in September 2017, and the second phase expected to start early in 2018.

    News story from Farm Ireland

    Wednesday, September 13, 2017
    Johne’s disease recommended for EU intervention.

    A panel of 27 scientists working for the European Food Standards Agency (EFSA) published a risk assessment of paratuberculosis according to European Union (EU) regulations. EFSA, functioning as a risk assessor, recommended that paratuberculosis be a “listed” disease. It is the job of the EU Commission (acting as the risk manager) to consider this report, and similar ones on other diseases, and decide: 1) if paratuberculosis should be an EU listed disease, and 2) if the recommended animal movement controls and disease surveillance to deal with paratuberculosis should be implemented.

    The 47 page document is dense reading but very comprehensive; best suited to experts in the field of paratuberculosis. It was published June 30, 2017 in the EFSA Journal [2017;15(7):4960] and is freely available online.

    In the view of some EU experts, if listing takes place, efforts towards MAP control will change significantly; not only in EU, but also with trade partners.

    Full 47 page article

    August 2017

    Wednesday, August 2, 2017
    Paratuberculosis in a dog

    Abstract: This case report shows that Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection can cause clinical disease in domestic dogs, and should be considered as a differential diagnosis for gastrointestinal inflammatory conditions. A male dachshund presented with lethargy and pain. Enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes were found on abdominal ultrasound examination. Cytological examination of lymph node aspirates was consistent with granulomatous inflammation, which was culture-confirmed as MAP. Although we were unable to confirm the source of infection, the dog’s history included exposure to sheep in the Western Cape. This is the first published report of MAP infection in a dog in which the infection was associated with granulomatous disease.

    The Journal of the South African Veterinary Association is an Open Access journal making the full article available to everyone at the link provided.

    Journal of the South African Veterinary Association

    April 2017

    Thursday, April 27, 2017
    Press Release from the MAP zoonosis conference held in Philadelphia

    Meeting conclusion:
    Based on the data presented at the conference, the scientists and physicians in attendance agreed the pendulum has swung and implicates MAP as a zoonosis: a disease transmitted from animals to humans. Read the full press release.

    Press Release

    March 2017

    Tuesday, March 28, 2017
    The RAMP App is now for both dairy and beef cattle herds!

    Need to do a Johne's herd Risk Assessment and Management Plan (RAMP)? Save trees and time by using an iPad App. The University of Wisconsin, School of Veterinary Medicine, Food Animal Production Medicine team in cooperation with the Johne's Information Center and colleagues at Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, has created an iPad App that permits entry of RAMP data, creation of herd management recommendations, and submission of the plan by email to relevant veterinary officials without need of a printer or paper. Of course, printing is an option too.

    The Johne's RAMP App is one of 8 great Apps designed to help practitioners manage dairy herd health. Click on the link below and you will be taken to the iTunes Store where this App is sold. The time you will save after a single herd RAMP more than offsets its cost. Note: This RAMP App is built on the U.S. model but is quite similar to RAMPs being used in other countries. Inside this App there is one version for dairy cattle herds and another for beef cattle herds.

    Link to App in iTunes Store

    February 2017

    Thursday, February 16, 2017
    New nonprofit foundation devoted to MAP and human diseases

    A new non-profit foundation has launched that is devoted to human diseases linked with MAP infection. The stated goal of the Human Paratuberculosis Foundation is to foster connections between patients, health care providers and their website. The site is a wealth of information, including where people can send samples for testing.

    Human Para Foundation

    Monday, February 13, 2017
    MAP linked to Type 1 Diabetes

    Dr. Michael Greger, MD presents a 5 minute synopsis of the science linking MAP infections to Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Nutrition video

    January 2017

    Friday, January 27, 2017
    MAP as a Zoonosis Meeting March 24-25, 2017
    Temple University, Philadelphia, PA

    Meeting goals:
    1) Review available MAP diagnostic methods.
    2) Review antibiotic therapies used to date in humans.
    3) Review evidence for the role of MAP in human diseases.
    4) Build on conclusions of the American Academy of Microbiology that MAP is associated with Crohns disease and implicated in other human chronic inflammatory syndromes.
    5) Summarize concerns that MAP is a zoonosis.

    The conference will be held at the Lewis Katz School of Medicine Medical Education and Research Building, 3500 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, Pa.

    There is no registration fee for the conference. Attendees are responsible for the payment of transportation, hotel and meal fees. There will be a charge for the catered luncheons during the conference.

    The recommended hotel for those attendees requiring lodging is the DoubleTree by Hilton, Philadelphia Center City 237 S. Broad Street, Philadelphia PA 19107. Attendees are eligible for the Temple University corporate rate for one or two occupants per night. Rooms are subject to availability so you are encouraged to make reservations soon.

    Click "program" for all of the meeting details.


    November 2016

    Monday, November 28, 2016
    Paratuberculosis: Past, present and future.


    This document provides the text of a keynote speech delivered by M.T. Collins at the 2016 World Buiatrics Congress (July, 2016 in Dublin, Ireland). The speech looks back on the 100+ year history of paratuberculosis, assesses the status of the disease today, makes predictions about the future of this disease, and offers six bullet points on the way forward.

    The views and opinions expressed in this speech are those of the author alone.

    Full text of WBC speech

    Tuesday, November 8, 2016
    Anti-MAP therapy cures Crohn's disease: Case report


    Examination of samples of stool from a 61-year-old male patient, presenting with the clinical symptoms of Crohns disease (CD), revealed massive shedding of acid fast bacilli with the morphology of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johnes disease in cattle. MAP was cultured from the stool. Biotyping of the bacterium isolated from cultures of stool demonstrated, it was the Indian Bison biotype of MAP, the dominant biotype infecting livestock and humans in India. Based on this finding and because the patient was unresponsive to standard therapy used in India to treat patients with gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders, the patient was placed on a regimen of multi-antibiotic therapy, currently used to treat tuberculosis and CD. After 1 year of treatment, the patients health was restored, concurrent with cessation of shedding of MAP in his stool. This patient is the first case shown to shed MAP from the stool who was cured of infection with antibiotics and who was concurrently cured of clinical signs of CD.

    Link to Frontiers in Medicine article

    July 2016

    Monday, July 25, 2016
    Review Article: The zoonotic potential of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analyses of the evidence.


    This is the fourth such major literature review and the fourth to verify a consistent association of MAP and Crohns disease. The article also concludes there is an association of MAP and multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the authors are very cautious in their assessment of what actions should be taken as shown by this excerpt of their publication's concluding paragraph:

    Although we presented some strong and consistent MA [meta-analysis] results of the association between M. paratuberculosis and human disease; the variability in M. paratuberculosis prevalence in controls and diseased groups and a lack of understanding whether some or all CD [Crohns disease] is caused or propagated by M. paratuberculosis are important knowledge gaps. These are the reasons for the lack of support for recommending further interventions against human exposure to M. paratuberculosis beyond what the dairy and ruminant industries have already developed for animal health and economic reasons. Thus, M. paratuberculosis may have a role in human disease; however the evidence is not strong enough to inform the potential public health impact of M. paratuberculosis exposure.

    PubMed Link

    January 2016

    Tuesday, January 5, 2016
    13th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis


    The 13th Colloquium on Paratuberculosis will be held June 20-23 in Nantes, France. The deadline for abstract submission is January 31, 2016. This meeting, held every 2 years, is the single most important meeting for scientists and clinicians interested in paratuberculosis (Johne's disease).

    Colloquium Home Page

    November 2015

    Tuesday, November 3, 2015
    New ELISA kit

    Research publication

    A new ELISA kit for diagnosis of bovine paratuberculosis was evaluated and compared to two other USDA-licensed ELISA kits. This research was published in a new open access veterinary Journal, SOJ Veterinary Sciences.

    SOJ Veterinary Science; issue #2

    October 2015

    Thursday, October 1, 2015
    MAP found alive in powdered infant formula

    Research publication

    This small study reports detection of viable MAP in 13% (4/32) of PIF samples. Culture detected viable MAP in 9% (3/32) PIF samples. Direct IS900 PCR detected MAP DNA in 22% (7/32) of PIF samples. The presence of viable MAP in PIF indicates that MAP either survived PIF manufacturing or that post-production contamination occurred. Irrespective of the route of MAP contamination, the presence of viable MAP in PIF is a potential public health concern.

    PubMed citation

    July 2015

    Friday, July 24, 2015
    Match wits with an expert
    New online Johnes training opportunity!!!

    Gain practical experience designing Johnes control programs without leaving home. This simulation game scores your ability to select the most cost-effective Johnes control program for five dairy herds each with different MAP infection rates, control objectives and business goals. Your boss will grade you against what he considered the best control program for that particular herd and give you feedback on your control plans. If you are good, hell make you a partner in his veterinary practice; Dairy Consultants of America.

    Heres what to do:
    1. Register at the UW-SVM CE portal (free)
    2. Enroll in the JD-Consult Simulation course;
      Option #1: pay $80 fee and earn 2 CE credits.
      Option #2: FREE! email and request a code allowing free access (no CE credit though)
    3. Listen to your Boss instructions, put on your virtual boots, and get to work.

    June 2015

    Tuesday, June 23, 2015
    Symposium: Treating Crohn's as a MAP infection

    A Symposium devoted to treatment of Crohn's disease as a MAP infection is the subject of an International Research Symposium being held August 16, 2015 in Deerfield, IL. Dr. Chamberlin, a U.S. gastroenterologist, and Dr. Amy Hermon-Taylor from the UK will describe recent advances in novel therapies for Crohn's disease based on the principle that this is an infectious disease. Mr. Patrick McLean, Product Manager at Redhill Biopharma Ltd., is also on the program. RedHill is an Israeli biopharmaceutical company that owns RHB-104, a potentially groundbreaking antibiotic combination therapy in oral capsule formulation, with potent intracellular, antimycobacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. RHB-104 is in phase III clinical trials for treatment of Crohn's disease.

    Symposium information

    February 2015

    Monday, February 16, 2015
    One Health - MAP - Crohn's Disease

    Over 100 years have passed since the Scottish surgeon Dalziel first speculated that the inflammatory bowel disease of humans known as Crohns disease has the same underlying trigger as Johnes disease in animals; namely MAP. This issue is explored in language readily understood by non-scientists in a story posted today on This website provides comprehensive in-depth stories on a wide range of topics. The story on MAP and Crohns disease, by Michael T. Collins, was posted today, February 16, 2015. sustains itself, without advertising revenue, by charging a small fee (40 cents) to read each story. A story teaser, plus editors notes, and a first-hand account of what it is like to live with Crohns disease, are provided for free to help readers judge if they want to read more.


    Thursday, February 5, 2015
    New website concerning MAP and Crohn's disease

    A new website has been launched that is devoted to the topic of MAP and it's role in Crohn's disease. People visiting the site are encouraged to watch the 16 minute video on the site's home page.

    Anti-MAP website

    December 2014

    Tuesday, December 9, 2014
    RAMP - Theres an App for that!

    Need to do a Johnes herd Risk Assessment and Management Plan (RAMP)? Save trees and time by using an iPad App. The University of Wisconsin, School of Veterinary Medicine, Food Animal Production Medicine team in cooperation with the Johnes Information Center has created an iPad App that permits entry of RAMP data, creation of herd management recommendations, and submission of the plan by email to relevant veterinary officials without need of a printer or paper. Of course, printing is an option too. The Johnes RAMP App is one of 8 great Apps designed to help practitioners manage dairy herd health. Click on the link below and you will be taken to the iTunes Store where this App is sold. The time you will save after a single herd RAMP more than offsets its cost. Note: This RAMP App is built on the U.S. model but is quite similar to RAMPs being used in other countries.

    Link to App in iTunes Store

    August 2014

    Thursday, August 14, 2014
    Clinical trial for treating Crohn's disease with anti-MAP antibiotics

    RedHill BioPharma has initiated a first Phase III clinical trial with RHB-104 (antibiotics directed against MAP) for Crohns Disease in North America and Israel. The link provides more information, including a list of clinical centers recruiting patients for the study in the U.S., Canada, and Israel.

    Clinical trial detail on website

    Monday, August 11, 2014
    Proceedings of the 12th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis

    FREE! - the International Association for Paratuberculosis makes the proceedings of all meetings freely available. Proceedings of its most recent meeting held in Parma, Italy June 22-26, 2014 is now online.

    12-ICP Proceedings

    March 2014

    Monday, March 17, 2014
    12th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis (ICP)

    Italy will host the most significant international meeting on paratuberculosis, the ICP, June 22-26 in Parma, Italy. The ICP is a meeting of leading researchers, livestock industry representatives, veterinarians and public health authorities with an interest in paratuberculosis (Johne's disease). Scientific sessions will focus on the biology of MAP, pathogenesis and immunology, diagnostics, national control programs, epidemiology and control strategies, concluding with an update on public health and food safety aspects.

    Critical dates:
    March 31, 2014: Deadline for early registration.
    April 30, 2014: Deadline for late registration and hotel reservations.

    2014 ICP website

    December 2013

    Thursday, December 5, 2013
    Novel Teaching Tool

    A very creative Canadian, Steven Roche, produced a clever video to teach dairy producers about on-farm control measures for paratuberculosis. Steve's interest is in finding new and innovative ways to deliver extension programs. Steve is a PhD Candidate in the Department of Population Medicine at the Ontario Veterinary College working under Dr. Dave Kelton. Check out his "whiteboard" video on YouTube! I think you will be impressed.

    You Tube Video

    November 2013

    Tuesday, November 19, 2013
    12th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis (ICP)

    Italy will host the most significant international meeting on paratuberculosis, the ICP, June 22-26 in Parma, Italy. The ICP is a meeting of leading researchers, livestock industry representatives, veterinarians and public health authorities with an interest in paratuberculosis (Johne's disease). Scientific sessions will focus on the biology of MAP, pathogenesis and immunology, diagnostics, national control programs, epidemiology and control strategies, concluding with an update on public health and food safety aspects.

    Critical dates:
    Now: Registration, hotel reservations and abstract submission open.
    January 31, 2014: Deadline for abstract submission.
    March 3, 2014: Notification of abstract acceptance.
    March 31, 2014: Deadline for early registration.
    April 30, 2014: Deadline for late registration and hotel reservations.

    2014 ICP website

    Tuesday, November 19, 2013
    Pilot Program Launches in Ireland

    Animal Health Ireland has launched a pilot Johne's control program. Like programs in other countries it involves on farm risk assessments and diagnostic testing. What is notable about the program is the financial support provided by eight dairy processors.

    Animal Health Ireland website

    May 2013

    Wednesday, May 29, 2013
    Assessment of MAP in the food supply

    TAFS presents an assessment of paratuberculosis and the food supply as a PowerPoint show. In a series of slides TAFS lays out the rationale for taking precautionary measures to limit paratuberculosis on farms as a means of preventing MAP contamination of the food supply.

    1) Click on the "Link to TAFS website" (below-right)
    2) Click the arrow in the center of the first slide to start the show.
    There is no narration.

    Note: "Morbus Crohn" (MB), the term used in Europe,
    is synonymous with Crohn's disease.

    Link to TAFS website

    January 2013

    Thursday, January 17, 2013
    Tackling Johne's around the world
    Ken Olsen. Hoards Dairyman, January 10, 2013

    While the human risk of contracting Johne's is unclear, many researchers and countries continue to search for new eradication methods.

    This article provides some of the highlights of the 11th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis held in Sydney, Australia in February 2012.

    Download article

    September 2012

    Wednesday, September 26, 2012
    Johne's Update from Hoard's Dairyman; September 10, 2012
    Johne's prevalence is higher than we thought. Vaccination does not improve production or culling rate but does decrease fecal shedding.

    MAP survives quite well in silage. Calving pen management and pasteurization of colostrum and waste milk are most important for effective Johne's control.

    Download article

    February 2012

    Tuesday, February 28, 2012
    11-ICP Proceedings.
    The full text of all presentations made at the 11th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis held in Sydney, Australia, February 5-10, 2012 are avaible online. The full proceedings is 412 pages. Articles, most being 1-4 pages, can be viewed individually. Click the IAP link. IAP membership is not required.

    Link to IAP website

    December 2011

    Thursday, December 22, 2011
    Johnes disease.
    November issue of Veterinary Clinics of North America Food Animal Practice.

    Volume 27, Issue 3, pages 525-664.

    The latest issue of VCNA-FAP is devoted to Johnes disease and targeted at veterinary practitioners. Its 13 chapters are authored by 12 experts and cover everything from the fundamentals of epidemiology (Lombard) and pathogenesis (Sweeney) to paratuberculosis control in beef cattle (Roussel), dairy cattle (Garry), small ruminants (Robbe-Austerman), and nondomestic animals (Manning). Additionally, the latest information on genetics of paratuberculosis resistance (Kirkpatrick), treatment (Whitlock), vaccination (Patton), and diagnosis (Collins) are covered in separate chapters. U.S. control programs (Carter) and international efforts to control the disease (Kennedy) are covered in two chapters. One chapter is devoted to food safety concerns related to M. paratuberculosis (Collins). This is the link for those interested in seeing the contents of the issue:

    Here is the link on how to order it:

    Thursday, December 22, 2011
    11th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis.
    Sydney Australia. February 5-10, 2011.

    Registration is open for the next international meeting devoted to paratuberculosis. The very latest science by the best international experts in a lovely part of the world.

    May 2011

    Thursday, May 5, 2011
    Match wits with an expert.
    New online Johnes training opportunity!!!

    Gain practical experience designing Johnes control programs without leaving home. This simulation game scores your ability to select the most cost-effective Johnes control program for five dairy herds each with different MAP infection rates, control objectives and business goals. Your boss will grade you against what he considered the best control program for that particular herd and give you feedback on your control plans. If you are good, hell make you a partner in his veterinary practice; Dairy Consultants of America.

    Heres what to do:
    1. Register at the UW-SVM CE portal (free)
    2. Enroll in the JD-Consult Simulation course; $80 fee and you earn 2 CE credits.
    3. Listen to your Boss instructions, put on your virtual boots, and get to work.

    March 2011

    Thursday, March 3, 2011
    Educational video produced by the Farmers Union of Wales (9 min)
    (with the assistance of the Johnes Information Center)

    March 3, 2011 This well-made 9 minute video, found on the FUW website listed below, describes the basics of Johnes disease control in dairy cattle herds.

    (Video no longer available from this site)

    January 2011

    Wednesday, January 5, 2011
    Canadian Johnes Disease Initiative

    The Canadian Johnes Disease Initiative (CJDI) was launched July 1, 2010. The Initiative is funded by Dairy Farmers of Canada (DFC) and the Canadian Cattlemens Association (CCA) and has the following priorities: i) Education and awareness, ii) Provincial program encouragement and coordination, iii) Research support and facilitation. For more information, visit their regularly updated website:

    September 2010

    Thursday, September 30, 2010
    New resource for small ruminant managers.

    Two helpful brochures focused on managing Johnes disease specifically for goat and sheep producers have just been released. Feel free to download, print or forward them to your breeder clubs, 4H groups, meat/milk/fleece or fiber production associates.

    Goat Owner Q&A

    Sheep Owner Q&A

    Click here to find both on our handouts page.

    Tuesday, September 21, 2010
    U.S. Program Standards revised September 1, 2010.

    Effective September 1, 2010 the USDA issued updated Uniform Program Standards for the Voluntary Bovine Johnes Disease Control Program. The most significant changes are in the approved testing strategies and criteria for classifying herds with a lower risk of transmitting MAP. Readers are directed to pages 30-32 of the Program Standards to see how the new six-level program is designed.

    Download new Program Standards

    June 2010

    Tuesday, June 1, 2010
    How much is Johnes disease costing you?

    The National Johnes Education Initiative, with financial support from IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., has developed a simple tool for estimating the cost of Johnes disease for commercial dairies. The attached brochure, describes how to make the cost calculations for your own herd. To make things even simpler, the authors of this website provide a link to our downloadable Excel spreadsheet to speed the calculations. Just plug in your numbers and the spreadsheet does the math. If you would rather have us do the calculations, simply send us an email at Ask An Expert with the 8 critical information items needed ( *reprinted with permission

    Download brochure

    May 2010

    Tuesday, May 18, 2010
    IDEXX laboratories launches new Johnes disease test approved for use on milk.

    IDEXX Production Animal Services announces the North American release of IDEXX M. pt. Antibody Test Kit for the detection of antibodies for Mycobacterium paratuberculosis (M. pt.) in milk, serum, and plasma samples. Designed to help dairy and cattle producers manage the impact of M. pt., also known as Johnes disease, this USDA-licensed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) minimizes the need for retesting ensuring quick turnaround time for producers.

    View press release

    February 2010

    Wednesday, February 10, 2010
    Liability for sale of cattle with Johnes disease.

    Different countries and states within the U.S. have differing laws regarding liability for sale of unhealthy animals. Wisconsin law is very specific about this as it pertains to Johnes disease. The attached summary of a case litigated in Wisconsin illustrates this point.

    This link takes you to the relevant Wisconsin Statute:

    Case summary PDF

    Wednesday, February 3, 2010
    An economic decision support tool for simulating paratuberculosis control strategies in a UK suckler herd.
    R. Bennett, I. McClement and I. McFarlane, University of Reading, UK.
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 93:286-293, 2010.

    A dynamic, deterministic, economic simulation model was developed to estimate the costs and benefits of Johnes disease control in suckler beef herds, known in the U.S. as cow-calf operations. This is the first such model dealing with beef cattle herds.

    The model is available free at:

    The publication describing the model is available at:

    Link to Model

    Wednesday, February 3, 2010
    Dr. Rod Chiodini comes out of retirement.

    ChiodiniDr. Chiodini, one of the pioneering scientists in the history of paratuberculosis, has come out of retirement to lead a research effort to determine if the relationship between M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and Crohns disease is causal or coincidental. Read more about The Crohns Disease Initiative at:


    Monday, February 1, 2010
    Paratuberculosis. Organism, Disease, Control.
    Editors: M.A. Behr & D.M. Collins. CABI, Oxford, UK.

    Book CoverRecent advances in detection, vaccination and microbial genetics make this a timely book that examines the epidemiology of paratuberculosis, the organism that causes the disease, and practical aspects of its diagnosis and control. It also addresses the link between MAP in in the food chain and human health implications, including Crohn's disease.

    Additional information and order form

    November 2009

    Wednesday, November 18, 2009

    Open in YouTube

    October 2009

    Wednesday, October 14, 2009
    Some Johnes Cows do More Harm Than Others

    Hoard's Dairyman CoverBy Terry Fyock, Robert Whitlock, and Raymond Sweeney
    Reprinted with permission of Hoards Dairyman

    The importance of finding and culling cows in a herd that are shedding excessively high numbers of M. paratuberculosis bacteria in their manure, so called super-shedders, is described in this article in the October 10, 2009 issue of Hoards Dairyman.

    View article

    July 2009

    Thursday, July 2, 2009
    International Food Safety Organization Position Paper on MAP

    TAFS, noted for its work on BSE, published its first position paper on MAP. The position paper outlines strategies at the farm-, national- and international-levels to limit human exposure to MAP through the food chain. The position paper is available for download from the TAFS website.

    TAFS logo

    TAFS website

    March 2009

    Wednesday, March 18, 2009
    Healthy Cows for a Healthy Industry
    Hoard's Dairyman Cover

    The results of a seven year Johnes disease control field trial in nine Wisconsin dairy herds is the subject of this 12 page special insert in the April 10, 2009 issue of Hoards Dairyman. This publication describes the overall results of the project and each of the nine participating herd owners gives their own perspective on the project and Johnes disease control in general. This project is part of the larger USDA-funded U.S. National Demonstration Herd Project. Major funding agencies for this UW project were the Wisconsin Milk Marketing Board, the USDA-APHIS-VS, and the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

    View article

    October 2008

    Wednesday, October 1, 2008
    Johnes disease still a concern: NAHMS Dairy 2007 indicates awareness high, but national epidemic continues.
    Bovine Veterinarian Cover

    Four experts comment on NAHMS Dairy 2007 and the growing epidemic. This Bovine Veterinarian article also discusses the latest information on Johnes disease diagnosis, control and costs.

    View article

    August 2008

    Tuesday, August 12, 2008
    Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis: Infrequent Human Pathogen or Public Health Threat?
    ASM logo

    People with Crohns disease (CD) are seven-fold more likely to have in their gut tissues the bacterium that causes a digestive-tract disease in cattle called Johnes disease. The role this bacterium may or may not play in causing CD is a top research priority. This report points out that the cause of Crohns disease is unknown, and the possible role of this bacterium, which could conceivably be passed up the food chain to people, has received too little attention from the research community.

    View press release or the full report is available at this URL:

    View press release PDF

    May 2008

    Monday, May 12, 2008
    They tackled Johnes head-on
    Hoards Dairyman Cover

    This farm decided to take on Johnes disease and reduce its grip on their herd . . . and it worked in a big way. Read this story about a successful Johnes disease control program carried out with financial support from the Wisconsin Milk Marketing Board, the USDA-APHIS-VS, and the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

    Download PDF

    April 2008

    Tuesday, April 15, 2008
    USDA NAHMS Dairy 2007 Johne's disease survey results have been released.

    The USDA-NAHMS report includes results from NAHMS results from the Dairy 1996, 2002 and 2007 studies on Johne's disease and includes herd level prevalence results through use of environmental culturing. Overall, the study supports peoples' estimates that most herds have some level of infection with 2/3 herds having at least one positive environmental sample; results are also stratified based upon herd size.

    Results available at:

    View survey results

    September 2007

    Saturday, September 1, 2007
    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Crohns disease: a systemic review and meta-analysis.
    M. Feller et al. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 7(9):607-613, September, 2007.

    Abstract: This systematic review assesses the evidence for an association between Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and Crohn's disease. We analysed 28 case-control studies comparing MAP in patients with Crohn's disease with individuals free of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or patients with ulcerative colitis. Compared with individuals free of IBD, the pooled odds ratio (OR) from studies using PCR in tissue samples was 701 (95% CI 395124) and was 172 (102290) in studies using ELISA in serum. ORs were similar for comparisons with ulcerative colitis patients (PCR, 413 [157109]; ELISA, 188 [126281]). The association of MAP with Crohn's disease seems to be specific, but its role in the aetiology of Crohn's disease remains to be defined. Full article available at:

    Full article

    April 2007

    Wednesday, April 18, 2007
    The 9th Annual International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis

    The 9th Annual International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis is October 29 – November 2 in Tsukuba, Japan. IAP Logo On-line abstract submission is now available!  The deadline for abstracts is July 30, 2007.

    The main website for the Colloquium is:

    The website for poster guidelines is:

    Scholarships are available for all students and scientists from developing countries.

    Additional details regarding criteria for award selection and application procedures may be downloaded from:
    Please note the submission deadline of June 1, 2007. 

    March 2007

    Wednesday, March 28, 2007
    Johnes: Progress in Small Steps.
    MWDB Logo

    Johnes disease continues to hamper dairy profitability and testing and prevention remain the best weapons. This excellent article reviews the latest information in diagnostic tests including the newest test to become available, the milk ELISA. Prevention and control of Johnes disease are also nicely summarized.

    Download PDF

    February 2007

    Tuesday, February 20, 2007
    ELISA for use with bovine milk samples approved by the USDA.
    Prionics Parachek ELISA has been approved by the USDA for use with bovine milk samples. The extended use of this serum antibody detection assay for milk is the first such approval granted by the agency.

    View press release

    Friday, February 9, 2007
    Tetracore Becomes a Sponsor.
    We welcome Tetracore to the family of sponsors. Their support helps to sustain and keep current this website. Tetracore offers the first commercial real-time PCR kit for detection of M. paratuberculosis in fecal samples.

    Tetracore Logo

    Visit their website for more information.

    January 2007

    Wednesday, January 24, 2007
    Johnes is dairys ticking time bomb.
    Hoard's Dairyman Cover By Lorraine Stuart Merrill, Hoards Dairyman, January 25, 2007

    The risks and the opportunities presented by Johnes disease and the recent high level of funding from Congress are the topic of this well-written editorial.

    Download the article

    Thursday, January 4, 2007
    What is the best test for Johnes disease?
    JAVMA cover A panel of five experts developed consensus recommendations on diagnostic testing for the detection of paratuberculosis in cattle in the United States. These recommendations cover seven specific situations when diagnostic testing is required for dairy or beef cattle herds. These recommendations were accepted by the U.S. National Johnes Working Group and the Johnes Disease Committee of the U.S. Animal Health Association. They were published in the December 15, 2006 issue of the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association which has agreed to make them publicly available at their website.

    December 2006

    Thursday, December 14, 2006
    9th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis
    Tsukuba Japan will be the site of the next international colloquium on paratuberculosis. This will be the first time the International Association for Paratuberculosis has met outside Europe or the USA. Information about the location and organizational details about the meeting are found at the 9ICP website.
    ICP logo

    Wednesday, December 13, 2006
    JDIP 3rd Annual Conference
    ICP logo JDIP is pleased to invite members and interested parties to the JDIP 3rd Annual Conference, to be held at the College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University. The conference will be held January 19-21, 2007.

    August 2006

    Tuesday, August 22, 2006
    Proceedings of the 8ICP are now available for purchase.
    ICP logo The International Association for Paratuberculosis has published the Proceedings of the 8th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis held in Copenhagen, August 14-18, 2005. This 734 page book contains the 87 full scientific papers, 180 abstracts and 4 workshop summaries. A limited number of hard copies are available and it can also be purchased on CD-ROM. This link directs you to the order form which can be completed and faxed to the Associations office.

    Order Form

    March 2006

    Friday, March 24, 2006
    Online education: something for everyone.
    Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection in partnership with the University of Wisconsin, School of Veterinary Medicine and WisTREC provide multiple online Johnes disease educational opportunities. These easy-to-use narrated modules focus on Johnes disease control issues for dairy, beef and goat producers. Additional modules addressing Johnes disease in sheep, deer, llamas and bison will be posted on-line in the near future.

    A 2 minute introduction can be seen here (requires Flash player).

    All of the online training programs can be found at:;id=133363

    The producer modules are also found on the Presentations page of this website:

    Wednesday, March 15, 2006
    Food safety experts to study Johnes organism.
    Feedstuffs Cover News story about the upcoming NACMCF Committee meeting (described in the March 7 news item below) as published in Feedstuffs magazine. Article reprinted with permission from the March 13, 2006 edition of Feedstuffs.

    Download the article

    Tuesday, March 7, 2006
    U.S National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods to consider the importance of M. paratuberculosis.
    The NACMCF is a large committee that brings together representatives from FDA, USDA, CDC, academia and multiple food industries. It meets March 21-24, 2006 in Arlington, VA. On the agenda for March 23, 8:30 AM to 5:00 PM is work of the Subcommittee on Assessment of the Food Safety Importance of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, David Acheson, Chair.

    For more information, visit the USDA-FSIS website.

    For background information about the NACMCF visit this website.

    January 2006

    Tuesday, January 10, 2006
    MORE money for Johnes disease control in Wisconsin
    Last year Wisconsins Designated Johnes Coordinator, Dr. Elisabeth Patton, awarded grants totaling over $270,000 to 87 producers to help upgrade facilities to better control Johnes disease. Grant money is again available, but producers must act quickly. Applications must be postmarked by January 31, 2006. More information is available in the PDF file below and can be found on the WDATCP website.

    Johne's Equipment Grants

    November 2005

    Tuesday, November 8, 2005
    REVISED Uniform Program Standards for the U.S. Voluntary Bovine Johnes Disease Control Program.
    Standards Cover Rules and regulations for operation of the U.S. Johnes disease control program were updated and made available November 1, 2005. The full document is available here and on the Articles and Brochures page of this website.

    USDA Program Standards

    October 2005

    Thursday, October 6, 2005
    Johnes Education Program Launched
    NIAA logoNIAA announced a collaborative effort between industry and government to educate producers, veterinarians, and others involved in dairy and beef production about Johnes disease.

    Web site

    September 2005

    Tuesday, September 13, 2005
    New, rapid test for Johnes disease.
    University of Minnesota logoResearchers at the University of Minnesota report development of a new test for Johnes disease that is both rapid (72 hours) and accurate. It can be done on either fecal or milk samples.

    University of Minnesota webpage

    August 2005

    Tuesday, August 30, 2005
    Money for Johnes disease control in Wisconsin.
    The Wisconsin Designated Johnes Coordinator recently awarded funds to dairy producers in the state for the purpose of controlling Johnes disease in their herds. The offer was well received by producers as all available funds were quickly disseminated.

    We will post an update on the impact of this program as it becomes available.

    June 2005

    Thursday, June 30, 2005
    Abstracts for the 8ICP available online.
    ICP logo The International Association for Paratuberculosis has published online abstracts for the up coming 8th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis being held in Copenhagen, August 14-18, 2005. Access is free to the more than 240 abstracts from contributors in 33 countries.

    View Abstracts

    April 2005

    Thursday, April 14, 2005
    Johnes Disease on U.S. Dairy Operations - 2002.
    Report cover The U.S. Dept. Agriculture published its most recent study on Johnes disease in the U.S. The 178 page report is a wealth of information. It provides survey results about risks for M. paratuberculosis transmission on U.S. dairies, diagnostic testing practices, test accuracy, test agreement, and estimation of the prevalence of M. paratuberculosis infection among the dairies selected for study. The document is free to download as a pdf file but be warned it is very large (5MB) and so takes considerable time to download depending on your internet connection speed. Report cover

    USDA web site for downloading file

    Wednesday, April 6, 2005
    8th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis.
    ICP logo The International Association for Paratuberculosis announced that its next Colloquium which will be held August 14-18, 2005 in Copenhagen Denmark. IAP colloquia bring together scientists from around the world who report on every aspect of paratuberculosis research and national control programs. More information is available on the web

    November 2004

    Tuesday, November 16, 2004
    UK publishes booklet on Johnes control in dairy herds.

    Booklet coverLast week the UKs Department of Environment and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) published a 12 page booklet advising dairy producers how to control Johnes disease. It is available free of charge at the link provided here.

    Link to booklet.

    September 2004

    Tuesday, September 21, 2004
    Culture of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis from the blood of patients with Crohn's disease.

    The following study concerning MAP and Crohn's disease was reported in the Lancet recently.

    Summary: Crohn's disease, a form of inflammatory bowel disease, resembles some aspects of tuberculosis, leprosy, and paratuberculosis. The role of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in Crohn's disease is controversial. Tested for MAP was completed by PCR and culture in buffy coat preparations from 28 individuals with Crohn's disease, nine with ulcerative colitis, and 15 without inflammatory bowel disease. MAP DNA in uncultured buffy coats was identified by PCR in 13 (46%) individuals with Crohn's disease, four (45%) with ulcerative colitis, and three (20%) without inflammatory bowel disease. Viable MAP was cultured from the blood of 14 (50%) patients with Crohn's disease, two (22%) with ulcerative colitis, and none of the individuals without inflammatory bowel disease. Current use of immunosuppressive medication did not correlate with a positive MAP culture. Sequencing of PCR products from MAP cultures confirmed the presence of the MAP specific IS900 fragment.

    Lancet web site

    August 2004

    Tuesday, August 10, 2004
    M. paratuberculosis found in U.S. milk.

    Viable (living) M. paratuberculosis organisms (the mycobacterium that causes Johne's disease), were found in low numbers in commercially pasteurized milk purchased from stores in California, Minnesota and Wisconsin according to research conducted by Dr. Jay Ellingson, Marshfield Clinic Laboratories, Marshfield, WI, USA . Of 702 samples tested, 2.8 percent contained viable M. paratuberculosis organisms. This study's results agree with previous research conducted in Great Britain and were presented recently at the International Association for Food Protection conference. The full study will be presented at the International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis, Aug. 14 - 18, Copenhagen, Denmark ( ).

    Study factsheet

    July 2004

    Thursday, July 1, 2004
    Waste milk, milk replacer or pasteurized waste milk Magazine Cover

    This excellent article describes the biosecurity benefits and costs of each method of feeding calves. A table nicely compares the estimated time to recover pasteurizer purchase costs and operating expenses for farms having 50 to 1,000 calves per year. Seven research papers on pasteurizers are listed for those wanting to read more

    View article

    Thursday, July 1, 2004
    8th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis.
    ICP logo The International Association for Paratuberculosis announced that its next Colloquium which will be held August 14-18, 2005 in Copenhagen Denmark. IAP colloquia bring together scientists from around the world who report on every aspect of paratuberculosis research and national control programs. More information is available on the web.

    March 2004

    Wednesday, March 17, 2004
    Johne's disease education online.
    CE Portal Screen ShotThe University of Wisconsin School of Veterinary Medicine has created online education opportunities in Johne's disease. The education is primarily targeted to veterinarians and designed to satisfy their continuing education (CE) requirements, however, anyone is welcome to take the CE modules. Individual CE courses are available and multiple courses also are packaged into certificate programs tailored for specific U.S. states. Completion of these programs grants a certificate and the title "Johne's Certified Veterinarian". Certified veterinarians can perform herd risk assessments and write herd management plans in support of state and U.S. federal Johne's disease control programs. Visit the UW-SVM CE portal for more information.

    Tuesday, March 9, 2004
    Continuing education articles on Johne's disease.
    IVJ coverThe Irish Veterinary Journal ran a series of three articles on Johne's disease in the continuing education section of the journal (Nov. and Dec. '03 and Jan. '04 issues). The core content for the articles originated from this website. With permission of the publisher, these articles (pdf files) are posted on the Authors' Page of this website.

    To the authors' page.

    December 2003

    Monday, December 8, 2003
    OJD found in Western Australia.
    Ovine Johne's disease, a chronic, incurable bacterial disease of sheep, was detected in Western Australia this week, but should not affect its "free zone" status.

    Victorian ministerial OJD advisory committee chairman Frank Tobin said while low levels of infection may exist, it could take years to detect. Tobin added that the industry should not overreact after a West Australian property was quarantined following the discovery of several sheep suffering from OJD.

    "It's very easy to lose producer support if you overreact and we shouldn't presume this is any more than it is," he said. "It won't alter Victoria's view of Western Australia and that is, that they have a low level of infection. What we'll be keen to see is the follow-up and the flow-on effects."

    The WA Department of Agriculture chief veterinary officer Peter Buckman said the outbreak in the state's central region would be investigated.

    Western Australia is the only state recognized under national rules as an OJD "free zone" and is expected to maintain that status.

    September 2003

    Tuesday, September 30, 2003
    New Johnes CD ROM and Website.
    The United States Animal Health Association (USAHA) now has a valuable new educational tool for use by animal health professionals involved with the control of Johnes disease titled Johnes and Beyond. The CD ROM contains 25 sets of PowerPoint slides and other essential information on this disease. The first edition of the CD ROM will be provided free for subscribers to the password-protected website. The annual subscription fee is $50. New PowerPoint slide sets and other pertinent information will be posted on the website as they become available. They will be included on an updated 2nd edition of the CD that is expected within the next two years. This CD ROM has been produced in association with a number of major sponsors including the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the American Veterinary Medical Association.
    USAHA web site
    To order your subscription and obtain a CD contact:
    Linda Raglund
    P.O. Box K227
    Richmond, VA 23299
    phone(USA): 804-285-3210
    fax: 804-285-3367

    USAHA web site

    August 2003

    Thursday, August 28, 2003
    Johne's disease - Crohn's disease connection?
    The August 2003 issue of the medical journal The Lancet Infectious Diseases (volume 3, pages 507-514) has an article by Dr. Robert J. Greenstein, Dept. Surgery, VMAC Bronx, Bronx NY USA, in the Personal View section titled: "Is Crohn's disease caused by a mycobacterium? Comparisons with leprosy, tuberculosis, and Johne's disease." The article is in the form of a review but also presented as a professional opinion. It is a useful compilation of many research publications and has 148 references. The abstract of the article can be viewed on the Lancet web site.

    Lancet web siteA reprint of the full article can be obtained from the publisher as a pdf file for US$30, after registering on The Lancet website:

    Lancet web site

    Tuesday, August 19, 2003
    U.S. National Academy of Sciences Report. Report cover
    The U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources has released its report titled Diagnosis and Control of Johne's Disease. This 229 page report is available in hard copy for US$37.60.

    Order this report.

    Tuesday, August 19, 2003
    M. paratuberculosis found more often in Crohn's patients. JCM web site
    A British research group reported finding genetic evidence of the presence of the animal pathogen in tissues from 92% (34/37) Crohn's patients studied vs. 26% (9/34) control tissues. The living organism was isolated from 42% (14/33) of Crohn's patient tissues vs. 3/33 or 9% of controls. The July 2003 Journal of Clinical Microbiology abstract is here:

    JCM web site.

    July 2003

    Tuesday, July 29, 2003
    The American Jersey Cattle Association works to stop the spread of Johne's disease. AJCA web site
    The AJCA now requires that cattle consigned to national sales be test-negative for Johne's disease within the past year. This move adds Johne's disease to the list of infectious diseases for which consignors must test cattle. We commend the AJCA for its efforts to halt the spread of Johne's disease. For more information contact the AJCA at:

    AJCA website

    June 2003

    Wednesday, June 25, 2003
    Proceedings of the 7th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis. ICP web site
    The 7ICP was held in Bilbao, Spain June 11-14, 2002. The meeting had 273 participants from 31 countries. The Proceedings of the 7ICP summarizes research presented at the meeting in the form of 98 oral and 114 poster presentations. The 554 page books is now available for purchase from the website of the International Association for Paratuberculosis.

    To the IAP website.

    February 2003

    Wednesday, February 12, 2003
    U.S. National Academy of Sciences Report. The U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources has released its report titled Diagnosis and Control of Johne's Disease. This 218 page report is available on line.

    NAS Logo

    View Report.

    Thursday, February 6, 2003
    Biosecurity Presentation. Biosecurity sign

    Preventing infection of dairy herds by viral and bacterial pathogens is called biosecurity. This mini-lecture describes the costs and benefits of a sound biosecurity program using many different disease examples, including Johne's disease.

    View Presentation.

    Thursday, February 6, 2003
    New decision-making tool for Johne's. Magazine Cover

    In two articles in Dairy Herd Management, Maureen Hanson describes a simple system for testing cows at the tail end of lactation to help make cost-effective culling decisions and calving management changes to help control Johne's disease in dairy herds. Interviews with two producers support the value of the decision making system.

    View both articles.

    January 2003

    Monday, January 6, 2003
    Johne's Disease Conference. IZS logo

    The Wisconsin Herd Health Working Group will sponsor a conference, Management is The Key to Controlling Johne's Disease, on Thursday, January 16, 2003, at the Holiday Inn Select, Appleton, Wisconsin. The one-day conference will bring producers and veterinarians together in roundtable discussions and will feature Johne's Disease industry experts.

    Visit the conference
    web site.

    December 2002

    Friday, December 27, 2002
    New Sponsor. Acquire logo

    We are pleased to welcome APC, Inc. as a new sponsor. APC, Inc. manufactures Acquire colostrum replacer, a useful tool in preventing the spread of Johne's disease.

    Visit the Acquire web site.

    Friday, December 20, 2002
    Canada moves forward with a Johne's disease program. The Ontario Dairy Farmer reported that a voluntary national program, similar to those in Australia, The Netherlands and the U.S. will begin in early 2003.

    View news article.

    Wednesday, December 18, 2002
    Johne's disease: new developments. Midwest DairyBusiness January 2003 Cover

    by Dave Natzke, Midwest DairyBusiness, January 2003.

    This article reviews Johne's control methods, highlights some new research findings and describes the conference on Johne's disease to be held January 16 in Appleton, Wisconsin.

    View article.

    Wednesday, December 18, 2002
    Prevent the spread of Johne's disease in your herd. Hoard's Dairyman December 2002 cover

    A newly released article in Hoard's Dairyman by Laura Moser describes ways to control the spread of Johne's disease in dairy herds. Interviews with experts and producers support the article.

    View article.

    Wednesday, December 18, 2002
    Biosecurity on dairies - are we doing enough? VitaPlus Summit Cover

    The VitaPlus Dairy Summit 2002 meeting was held in Minnetonka, Minnesota, December 12-13, 2002. The proceedings handout concerned biosecurity in general and Johne's disease prevention in particular and is provided here.

    View Collins' handout from the Summit proceedings.

    November 2002

    Thursday, November 21, 2002
    Scientists Crack Genome Sequence Of M. paratuberculosis. University of Minnesota researchers, with collaborators at the U. S. Department of Agriculture?s National Animal Disease Center in Ames, IA, have completed sequencing the genome of the bacteria that causes Johne?s disease.

    View the entire press

    October 2002

    Tuesday, October 15, 2002
    International Conference on Crohn's disease and paratuberculosis. IZS logo

    Rome, Italy, January 24-25, 2003. The Instituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale Regioni Lazio e Toscana is hosting the international conference. Featured speakers include Prof. John Hermon-Taylor (UK), Prof. Ivo Pavilk (CZ), Dr. Ramon Juste (ES), and Prof. Leonardo Sechi (IT) plus several other Italian experts in the field. The attached preliminary program announcement provides contacts for more information.

    Download program.

    Thursday, October 3, 2002
    M. paratuberculosis and Crohn's disease. The University of Ottawa is hosting a meeting titled: " A MAP for Crohn's disease. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Crohn's disease: Is there evidence for causation?". The meeting will be held Tuesday, October 8, 2002 from 1:00 - 5:00 pm in Amphitheater B of the Roger Guidon Hall at the University of Ottawa, 451 Smyth Rd. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. For further information visit or open the meeting announcement.

    Open the meeting

    September 2002

    Wednesday, September 25, 2002
    M. paratuberculosis and food safety. UW Extension logo

    University of Wisconsin Extension is hosting a special forum titled: Emerging Issues in Food Safety, October 17, 2002 in River Falls, WI. Five of the 10 presentations concern M. paratuberculosis. Experts from N. Ireland, New Zealand and Canada are on the program. The attached meeting announcement provides the full program and registration details.

    Open the meeting

    Wednesday, September 11, 2002
    Abstracts - International Colloquia on Paratuberculosis. IAP Logo

    Abstracts of the 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, and most recent, 7th, International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis are available on the website of the International Association for Paratuberculosis.

    IAP web site

    August 2002

    Friday, August 2, 2002
    Paratuberculosis in a primate. Cover of JVDI Journal

    A case report of paratuberculosis in a mandrill baboon is described in the July issue of the Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. A reprint of the article is attached (with permission of the authors and journal editor).

    Download the 3 page article.

    July 2002

    Friday, July 12, 2002
    U.S. House of Representatives approves $20 million for Johne's. The House Agriculture Appropriations Subcommittee approved $20,352,000 for the National Johne's Disease Management and Testing Program. The money will be used for testing during the first year of the program. A provision in the original plan to pay producers fair market value for animals that test positive and are culled did not receive funding. The full House Appropriations Committee is expected to take action this week. Although the Senate has yet to approve funding for the Johne's program, approval is not expected to be a problem.

    Monday, July 1, 2002
    M. paratuberculosis infection in a patient with HIV. Cover of CDC's Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal

    A German research team reports the first case of human infection with M. paratuberculosis in a patient with HIV inEmerging Infectious Diseases (vol. 8, no. 7, July 2002). The article is available on line at the CDC website.

    CDC website

    May 2002

    Wednesday, May 15, 2002
    USDA publishes uniform methods and rules. The U.S. Dept. of Agriculture published a document titled: Uniform Program Standards for the Voluntary Bovine Johne's Disease Control Program. This 28 page document provides standard definitions, methods and rules for states wanting to adopt a system for classifying herds based on the likelihood they are NOT infected (generically referred to as a herd certification program).

    Download the 28 page
    standards document.

    April 2002

    Tuesday, April 23, 2002
    7th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis. ICP logoSpain will host the next international meeting devoted exclusively to M. paratuberculosis. The announcement, meeting description and registration information can be found on the interesting and informative website the host agency, NEIKER, has created.

    You may also download
    a copy of the brochure.

    March 2002

    Friday, March 29, 2002
    New Sponsor. We are pleased to welcome Goodnature Products, Inc. as a new sponsor.Goodnature Products, Inc. logo Goodnature designs and manufactures pasteurizers that are available in a variety of sizes to accommodate the needs of your facility.

    Visit the Johne's sponsorship page
    to view all sponsor web pages

    February 2002

    Tuesday, February 26, 2002
    Manual for Herd Plan Development. SCI brochureThis 14 page manual for dairy herds provides a guide for collecting a herd history, estimating herd prevalence, analyzing risk factors for Johne?s disease transmission, and developing a control and prevention plan.

    Download the 14 page manual.

    January 2002

    Friday, January 18, 2002
    Mycobacterium paratuberculosis: impact on human health and the dairy industry. SCI brochure April 10, 2002 the Department of Food Science, Queen's University, Belfast, UK is hosting a meeting organized by the SCI (Society of Chemical Industry) Food Commodities & Ingredients Group. The one-day program features eight international experts. (Prepare for a slow download as the brochure is a 7 MB pdf file.)

    Download the 4 page brochure
    and registration form.

    December 2001

    Monday, December 3, 2001
    Calf milk pasteurization. This new article from Bovine Veterinarian demonstrates how pasteurization of milk fed to calves is a successful strategy to control the spread of Johne's disease, as well as several other infectious diseases, from cows to calves. It describes the process of pasteurization and some of the economic and logistic issues important to consider.

    Download the 5 page

    November 2001

    Monday, November 19, 2001
    Senators introduce legislation to eradicate Johne's disease. U.S. Senators Russ Feingold and Herb Kohl today introduced legislation "to establish a voluntary program designed to provide incentives to encourage dairy producers to voluntarily begin testing for Johne's disease and to remove infected and exposed animals from their dairy herds. This legislation is based on the recommendation of the National Johne's Working Group and would be voluntary and confidential," according to a news release from Feingold's office.

    Visit the Dairyline website
    for the complete story.

    October 2001

    Monday, October 1, 2001
    New Sponsorship! The Johne's Information Center is pleased to announce two new sponsors.

    Milk Products, Inc. is a market and customer-driven company dedicated to the development, production, distribution, marketing and servicing of quality milk replacers and other young animal products worldwide through independent feed manufacturers and distributors.

    Hoard's Dairyman has, for over 100 years, provided continuous, reliable service and courageous leadership in a magazine for the nation's dairy farmers.

    Visit the Johne's sponsorship page
    to view all sponsor web pages

    September 2001

    Sunday, September 30, 2001
    New Sponsorship! The Johne's Information Center is pleased to announce two new sponsors.

    Milk Products, Inc. logoMilk Products, Inc. is a market and customer-driven company dedicated to the development, production, distribution, marketing and servicing of quality milk replacers and other young animal products worldwide through independent feed manufacturers and distributors.

    Hoard's Dairyman logoHoard's Dairyman has, for over 100 years, provided continuous, reliable service and courageous leadership in a magazine for the nation's dairy farmers.

    Visit the Johne's sponsorship page
    to view all sponsor web pages

    Saturday, September 29, 2001
    Series of articles about Johne's Disease. Recently Angus Journal published a series of articles relating to Johne's in three separate issues. The Cattle Industry's Next Big Test addresses the advantages of structured testing and certification programs. Means to an End covers the complex testing process. And Prepare for Battle deals with prevention.

    Visit the articles/brochures page
    to view more articles.

    Thursday, September 27, 2001
    Irradiation destroys Johne's in milk. An article in the September issue of Dairy Herd Management reports on preliminary findings of a joint research between Colorado State University and the National Animal Disease Center. Their studies indicate that the bacterium that causes Johne's, M. paratuberculosis, can be killed with 5 kGy of irradiation. Pinpointing the lowest possible dose of irradiation needed for 100% kill and the impact on milk quality remain to be determined.

    Download the following 1 page

    August 2001

    Sunday, August 26, 2001
    Crohn's: An autoimmune or bacterial-related disease? An article in The Scientist (volume 15, page 22, Aug. 20, 2001) concisely describes discovery that mutations in the NOD2 gene are associated with Crohn's disease in roughly 15% of patients. The article also outlines evidence for involvement of other genes in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease such as those involving the major histocompatibility complex. It concludes by outlining the debate on M. paratuberculosis involvement in this disease and recent activities by the U.S. National Institutes of Health on this topic. (To access this site you will have to register. Registration is free of charge.)

    View this article on The Scientist's
    web site.

    Friday, August 24, 2001
    Control of M. paratuberculosis in milk. The Food Standards Agency of the U.K. has posted a summary of their May 23 & 24, 2001 conference on this topic. The committee noted that the risk to human health has not been established, and did not recommend any change in the current advice regarding the consumption of milk. They note that the full conference report will be available on their website shortly.

    For more information

    July 2001

    Monday, July 30, 2001
    International Association for Paratuberculosis

    Sunday, July 29, 2001
    International Regulations on Johne's disease (paratuberculosis)

    Saturday, July 28, 2001
    Paratuberculose (paratbc)
    Gezondeindsienst voor Dieren (Animal Health Service of
    The Netherlands)

    Friday, July 27, 2001
    Johnes Information Centre
    Animal Health Australia

    Thursday, July 26, 2001
    Tuberculosis Y Paratuberculosis
    Facultad de Veterinaria. Universidad de Len

    Wednesday, July 25, 2001
    Paratuberculosis en ciervo colorado

    Tuesday, July 24, 2001
    Canadian information on Johne's disease Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food

    Tuesday, July 3, 2001
    Proceedings of the Workshop on Diagnosis, Prevention and Control of Johne's disease in Non-domestic Hoofstock

    288 KB

    Tuesday, July 3, 2001
    Johne's testing: a small investment with big benefits JoDee Sattler, Midwest Dairy Business, April, 2001

    827 KB

    Tuesday, July 3, 2001
    Practical protocols Paula Mohr, Dairy Today, July 2000.

    108 KB

    Tuesday, July 3, 2001
    4 ways to minimize disease during expansion Kimberlee Schoomaker, Dairy Herd Management, November 2000.

    300 KB

    Tuesday, July 3, 2001
    Got milk? No, I've got BVD, Johne's heel warts, mastitis..... Dr. Greg Quakenbush Jack Wiley, Midwest Dairy Business, November-December 1998

    4.3 MB

    Tuesday, July 3, 2001
    Test your cows for Johne's disease JoDee Sattler, Midwest Dairy Business 2000

    5.3 MB

    Tuesday, July 3, 2001
    Raising calves - The 5 Cs of a healthy start Wisconsin Herd Health Working Group, July 2000

    180 KB

    Tuesday, July 3, 2001
    Johne's disease control strategies Geni Wren, Bovine Veterinarian, May-June 1998.

    324 KB

    Tuesday, July 3, 2001
    Johne's can be managed Paula Mohr, Dairy Today, November/December 2000

    67 KB

    Tuesday, July 3, 2001
    The real cost of Johne's Kim Bower-Spence, Dairy Today, July 2000.

    40 KB

    Tuesday, July 3, 2001
    Immunology of the calf Geni Wren, Bovine Veterinarian, February 1996.

    600 KB

    Tuesday, July 3, 2001
    Answers to pasteurization questions Dr. Marguerita B. Cattell, Dairy Herd Management, November 1999.

    28 KB

    Tuesday, July 3, 2001
    Johne's program - where they're at Geni Wren, Bovine Veterinarian, January 2001

    828 KB

    Tuesday, July 3, 2001
    Wisconsin Johne's disease regulations Wisconsin Herd Health Working Group, July 2000

    180 KB

    Tuesday, July 3, 2001
    Lack of harmonization threatens Johne's control efforts Editorial by Thomas J. Quaife, Dairy Herd Management, July 1999.

    20 KB

    Tuesday, July 3, 2001
    Diagnosis of Johne's disease in cattle Mike Collins, Hoard's Dairyman, March 25, April 10 & 25, 2001.

    432 KB

    Tuesday, July 3, 2001
    Possible links between Crohn's disease and paratuberculosis The European Commission Directorate

    597 KB

    Monday, July 2, 2001
    Consider on-farm Johne's testing Kimberlee Schoomaker, Dairy Herd Management, February 2000.

    276 KB

    Monday, July 2, 2001
    Johne's Disease found in Kangaroos Primary Industries and Resource SA

    12 KB

    Sunday, July 1, 2001
    Testing for Johne's disease Geni Wren, Bovine Veterinarian, July-August 1998.

    484 KB

    Sunday, July 1, 2001
    Aim for Johne's eradication Kimberlee Bungert, Dairy Herd Management, December 1997.

    3.5 MB

    June 2001

    Monday, June 18, 2001
    Are Johne's and Crohn's connected? Science has yet to prove what causes Crohn's disease in humans. Some believe M. paratuberculosis-infected animals are to blame. This article concisely reviews both sides of this controversial issue. Excellent side bars provide more information. One is titled: "Does pasteurization kill MAP [M. paratuberculosis]?. Another is titled: "What producers can do in the fight against Johne's". And a third is titled "The fight against Crohn's disease".

    Download the following 3 page

    Wednesday, June 13, 2001
    CAST issue paper on Johne's disease The Council on Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST) has published an issue paper (number 17, May 2001) titled "Johne's Disease in Cattle". The report summarizes the status of bovine Johne's disease in the USA. This 10 page report prepared by seven member task force and reviewed by a panel of three independent experts is a concise overview of the current situation in the U.S..

    Download the following 10 page
    Issue Paper.

    Tuesday, June 12, 2001
    Diagnosis of Johne's disease in cattle This is a compilation of three articles in Hoard's Dairyman describing laboratory tests for Johne's disease and how they can be interpreted and used to control the disease in dairy herds.

    Download all three articles
    as a single file.

    May 2001

    Friday, May 18, 2001
    Johne's disease found in Kangaroos Interim laboratory results from veterinary research on Kangaroo Island, S. Australia have shown that two kangaroos and two wallabies have tested positive for the presence of Ovine Johne's disease (OJD) bacteria.

    Download the following 1 page
    press release.

    April 2001

    Saturday, April 21, 2001
    Educate yourself about Johne's Test your knowledge of Johne's disease. See if you can answer these seven frequently asked questions. Answers to the questions from the leading U.S. experts are provided in this article.

    Download the

    Sunday, April 1, 2001
    Johne's testing: a small investment with big benefits This article describes how the Selz-Pralle dairy in Humbird, Wisconsin use tests for Johne's disease to 1) limit the risk of introducing infected animals into their herd and 2) eliminate this infection that got into their herd during a herd expansion. This is an excellent real world example of the kind of prevention and control programs outlined on this website.

    Download the following 3 page

    March 2001

    Wednesday, March 21, 2001
    New book published The Office International des Epizooties (O.I.E.) today announced publication of a book titled "Mycobacterial Infections in Domestic and Wild Animals". Two chapters in this 15 chapter, 352 page book concern M. paratuberculosis. For more extensive description of the book contents and ordering information go to the OIE website.

    Thursday, March 1, 2001
    Wisconsin Johne's herd status update July 1, 2000 Wisconsin started a bold plan to classify all cattle herds in the sate based on laboratory test data. In spite of low milk prices that have dampened herd owner's desire to spend money on herd testing, many herds have already been tested and most were found to be test-negative for Johne's disease. The number of herds in each herd classification are shown on the attached graph. Specific rules regarding the herd classification system can be found in a handout available on this site.


    January 2001

    Thursday, January 18, 2001
    "Johne's program - where they're at" The January issue of Bovine Veterinarian has an article by Geni Wren describing the situation in different U.S. states regarding Johne's herd status (certification) and control program. The story contrasts what the U.S. is doing compared to other countries. Actions the USDA is planning to take are outlined and the policy position on Johne's disease of the National Cattlemen's Beef Association is provided.

    Download the following 4 page
    document containing the article.

    Tuesday, January 16, 2001
    New book on M. paratuberculosis The International Dairy Federation has published a monograph resulting from a year of work by its Task Force on M. paratuberculosis. The book reviews the basics of diagnosis and control of Johne's disease and the biology of M. paratuberculosis. It nicely summarizes methods to detect and enumerate M. paratuberculosis in milk and other dairy products and provides the most up to date information on what is known about the effect of pasteurization on this organism. It is primarily a technical report of interest to specialists in the field of paratuberculosis.For ordering information, visit the IDF website listed here and look under "forthcoming publications". The book first becomes available January 27, 2001.

    November 2000

    Monday, November 27, 2000
    AAVLD meeting abstracts on M. paratuberculosis The annual meeting of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians was held in Birmingham, Alabama USA October 19-22, 2000. Fourteen oral or poster presentations at the meeting concerned M. paratuberculosis. Most concern new diagnostic tests for Johne's disease. The abstracts for these presentations are available here.

    Download the following 15 page
    document containing the abstracts

    Sunday, November 12, 2000
    CRWAD meeting abstracts on M. paratuberculosis: The 81st annual meeting of the Conference or Research Workers in Animal Disease was held in Chicago, November 12-14, 2000. Ten oral or poster presentations concerned M. paratuberculosis. The abstracts for these presentations are available here.

    Download the following 7 page
    document containing the abstracts.

    October 2000

    Thursday, October 19, 2000
    Proposed indemnity program in U.S. The title is "National Voluntary Johne's Indemnity for Dairy Cattle". The purpose is to compensate herd owners $900/animal for cattle slaughtered after finding them test-positive for Johne's disease. This change in the CFR was first presented at the 2000 U.S. Animal Health Association meeting in Birmingham, Alabama October 18, 2000. Further discussion will take place at the next NJWG meeting held in conjunction with the National Institutes for Animal Health meeting, April 2-5, 2001, Antlers Adamsmark Hotel, Colorado Springs, CO.

    Wednesday, October 18, 2000
    USDA proposes Uniform Methods and Rules to operate a Voluntary Bovine Johne's Disease Control Program. These rules were first presented at the 2000 U.S. Animal Health Association meeting in Birmingham, Alabama October 18, 2000.

    Download the following 17 page
    document for a detailed description.

    Monday, October 16, 2000
    Genetic resistance to Johne's in dairy cattle University of Wisconsin research team enlists the help of hundreds of U.S. dairy producers to search for markers of genetic resistance to Johne's disease in dairy cattle.

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