A UK team of scientists from Lancaster University, monitored the presence of MAP in the River Tywi catchment for a 10-year period. Their findings were published in the open access journal Microorganisms (volume 7, issue 5, May 15, 2019). Readers interested in the environmental distribution of MAP and modes of human exposure should definitely take a look at this novel study: 15 pages with 65 references. The figure below from this publication places rivers, lakes and reservoirs at the center of a complex model of MAP transmission.
Comment: More about MAP in food and water can be found at this location in our website. Human to human MAP transmission is a potential mode of human infection as shown in the publication from this research team. However, based on the rate of infection of animal populations and the volume of potentially MAP-contaminated feces they deposit in the environment day after day, the most efficient means of human MAP exposure control is resides on farms where producers and veterinarians have all of the necessary knowledge and diagnostic tools to control this infection.